European Scholar Journal https://scholarzest.com/index.php/esj <p><strong>European Scholar Journal (ESJ)</strong> is a Multidisciplinary peer-reviewed open access international journal that covers various areas of research. This journal is published online monthly. The double-blind peer-reviewed journal strives to achieve excellence in academic publications. </p> <p><em><strong>European Scholar Journal (ESJ) is edited in Las Palmas by ScholarZest.</strong></em></p> <p><strong>ISSN (E):</strong> 2660-5562 </p> <p><strong>Journal Impact Factor:</strong> 7.235 <strong><a href="https://sjifactor.com/passport.php?id=21407">SJIF 2024: </a></strong><a href="https://sjifactor.com/passport.php?id=21407">7.951 </a></p> en-US editor1@scholarzest.com (Dr. Daniel Lopez) contact@scholarzest.com (Dr. Gabriel Gonzalez) Fri, 09 Feb 2024 06:14:53 +0000 OJS 3.2.1.1 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 ULTRASOUND DIAGNOSTICS OF THE HIP JOINT DISEASES https://scholarzest.com/index.php/esj/article/view/4279 <p>This article is devoted to the application of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of inflammatory and degenerative diseases of the hip joint. The article discusses the relevance of the use of ultrasound in the disease of ostearthrosis (OA), rheumatoid arthritis and aseptic necrosis of the femoral head, as well as the differential assessment of inflammatory and degenerative processes based on ultrasound Doppler sonography. For a long time, a simple X-ray was considered the reference technique of osteoarthritis (OA). Recently, ultrasonography is an innovative method for visualizing this disease. The use of ultrasound highlights the various anatomical structures in great detail and detects intra- and extra-articular changes.</p> Madumarova Zarnigor Shukhrat kizi, Xodjibekov Marat Khudoykulovich Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://scholarzest.com/index.php/esj/article/view/4279 Wed, 07 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 ARABIC BORROWED WORDS IN “NAZMI AQAID” https://scholarzest.com/index.php/esj/article/view/4320 <p>The article analyzes the lexical-semantic features of the Arabic words in the work "Nazmi Aqaid", a poetical commentary on Abu Hafs Umar al-Nasafi's work "Aqaid un-Nasafi"</p> Abdurahmon Latipov Copyright (c) 2024 Abdurahmon Latipov https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://scholarzest.com/index.php/esj/article/view/4320 Fri, 16 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 METACOGNITIVE STRATEGIES IN LISTENING LECTURES (LITERATURE REVIEW) https://scholarzest.com/index.php/esj/article/view/4284 <p>This literature review was written based on seven research papers that have been done on metacognitive listening strategies where scholars identify their role and effectiveness in listening lectures. This article presents framework theories, principles according to which some investigations have been conducted which consist the role of metacognitive strategies in listening academic lectures, obstacles that students face in listening, metacognitive strategies use in listening lectures, methods that are used for data collection and conclusion</p> Guzal Turaeva Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://scholarzest.com/index.php/esj/article/view/4284 Thu, 08 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 LANGUAGE FEATURES OF INTERNET LINGUISTICS IN MODERN CONDITIONS https://scholarzest.com/index.php/esj/article/view/4285 <p>The article examines and analyzes the development of Internet linguistics, as well as the influence of media convergence on the linguistic features of the Internet environment in modern conditions. Particular attention is paid to the formation and approval of Internet linguistics as a new direction in linguistics, the research methods it uses, the terminological apparatus, Internet discourse, and the peculiarities of Internet communication.</p> Vokhidova Tamanno Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://scholarzest.com/index.php/esj/article/view/4285 Thu, 08 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 THE DEVELOPMENT PATH OF THE UZBEK PEOPLE'S THEATER https://scholarzest.com/index.php/esj/article/view/4291 <p>The article reflects on the Uzbek folk epics, Uzbek folk performances and Uzbek folk games, our unique and elegant intangible cultural assets inherited from ancestors.</p> Maxfuza Rakhmonova Kholmuradovna Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://scholarzest.com/index.php/esj/article/view/4291 Thu, 08 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 CULTURAL SPACE OF CULTURAL BEING FORM OF EXISTENCE https://scholarzest.com/index.php/esj/article/view/4292 <p>In this article, the cultural space is based on the basis of the scientific and philosophical views of some foreign and Uzbek philosophers on the properties of Cultural being, which are based on the fact that cultural being is a form of existence. Also, the classifications of "being" as a phenomenon are atrophied.</p> Sunatov Dilshod Hoshimovich Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://scholarzest.com/index.php/esj/article/view/4292 Thu, 08 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 CONTENT AND STRUCTURE OF SPIRITUAL VALUES https://scholarzest.com/index.php/esj/article/view/4293 <p>The article interprets the content and forms of spiritual values in the context of social progress. According to the author, such an approach makes it possible to vividly reveal the original content of spiritual values</p> Boybekova Shahnoza Aliyevna Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://scholarzest.com/index.php/esj/article/view/4293 Thu, 08 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 THE EFFECT OF USING KEFIR AS A PROBIOTIC ON THE CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS IN MALE ARABI LAMBS https://scholarzest.com/index.php/esj/article/view/4295 <p>Milk kefir has different physical, chemical and microbial properties, but many of the microbial species that make up kefir have probiotic functions, and it is considered a promising alternative in developing foods that contain probiotics and promote health. Sixteen Arabi male lambs weighted divided into four treatments (control, 25 ml, 50 ml and 75 ml of kefir). Body weight, carcass characteristics, and weights of the carcass cuts, including ribs, loin, thigh, tail, A physical dissection of the rib and neck, and their proportions were calculated. pieces, including fat, meat, and bone, and their percentages, was also conducted. In addition to the weight of the carcass waste. The study showed the role of kefir as a probiotic in enhancing body and carcass weight and carcass characteristics. There were significant differences (P</p> <p>&lt;0.05) for the treatments compared to the control group in the percentage of adhesion and the weight of the hot body. The treatments also excelled significantly (P&gt;&lt;0.05) in the weights of carcass pieces and their proportions. There were no significant differences in the weights of carcass waste and the weights of internal organs except heart weight in the treated groups compared with the control group. &gt;</p> Mustafa Raisan Kadhim Al Nassar, Hanaa A. J. Al-Galbi, Zainab S. Alobaidi Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://scholarzest.com/index.php/esj/article/view/4295 Thu, 08 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 ALGAE BIOFERTILIZATION AS A TYPE OF MODERN CLEAN AGRICULTURE AROUND THE WORLD / REVIEW ARTICLE https://scholarzest.com/index.php/esj/article/view/4296 <p>Today we need a new and conscious approach to agriculture in order to respect and preserve the environment in which we live, and for a better future, aims to implement this new model day by day. Agriculture plays a fundamental and important role in a person’s life, as it provides him with his basic needs of clothing and food, so paying attention to the agricultural sector, developing it, and using modern technological methods is necessary to keep pace with changes global development in the agricultural field, the most important of which is following a sound agricultural policy that is consistent with the requirements of the times despite the FAO’s confirmation that the year 1966 witnessed an increase in global production of strategic grain crops by about 7%, the global supply of grains decreased and prices rose by more than 50% in the same year. The fact that we are a consumer society, including strategic food, which means, specifically, that we lack food security. Predictions are that the increase in demand for food will reach 70% in 2030 AD overcoming this bleak picture is possible if we focus on agricultural production with the aim of meeting food needs, this is done through integrated agricultural plans that take advantage of the moderate climate and vast areas of land arable and non-cultivated crops, water, and agricultural modernization techniques to meet the challenges of the future.</p> Siham N.Lefta, Baraah Hussein Abdulhadi, Estabraq Mohammed Ati, Reyam Naji Ajmi Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://scholarzest.com/index.php/esj/article/view/4296 Thu, 08 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 CLEAN AGRICULTURE'S ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT/ A REVIEW ARTICLE https://scholarzest.com/index.php/esj/article/view/4297 <p>Clean agriculture must be managed in a preventive and responsible manner to ensure the environment, health, and survival of current and future generations. It is a live, dynamic system that reacts to influences and internal and external factors. Clean agriculture practitioners can improve efficiency, increase production, and evaluate new technologies, especially when understanding agricultural ecosystems to provide a good plant environment for plant growth, as agriculture is considered one of the most important activities that man has practiced since ancient times. Its access to food and the integration of applications and technologies across sectors enhance the development of the food and agricultural sectors by integrating new farming practices through the industrial sector</p> Abrar Thamer Al-Safaar, Rana ihssan hamad, Israa radhi khudair, Reyam Naji Ajmi Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://scholarzest.com/index.php/esj/article/view/4297 Thu, 08 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 USING GENETIC INFORMATION TO SYNTHESIZE FUNCTIONAL GENE PRODUCTS / REVIEW ARTICLE https://scholarzest.com/index.php/esj/article/view/4306 <p>We must answer some questions: What is gene expression? How does that happen? How is it diagnosed when talking about gene expression there is certainly a lot of information that may be missing or missed, were not able to reach it, as the rate of gene expression is linked to the rate of metabolic processes and the extent of the flow of all metabolites through certain pathways by regulating the formation or synthesis of specific enzymes for each gene, the rate of change in the activities of enzymes is present when essential substances are available. In contrast, enzymes required for biosynthesis are generally catabolic enzymes that are stimulated, catabolic enzymes are inhibited when metabolic products are present in the pathway in which they function</p> Dr. Haidar J. Muhammed, Dr.Ali R. Laftah, Dr. Abdalkader Saeed Latif, Estabraq Mohammed Ati Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://scholarzest.com/index.php/esj/article/view/4306 Wed, 14 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 HEALTHCARE-ASSOCIATED INFECTIONS (NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS) / REVIEW ARTICLE https://scholarzest.com/index.php/esj/article/view/4307 <p>We must answer some questions: What is gene expression? How does that happen? How is it diagnosed when talking about gene expression there is certainly a lot of information that may be missing or missed, were not able to reach it, as the rate of gene expression is linked to the rate of metabolic processes and the extent of the flow of all metabolites through certain pathways by regulating the formation or synthesis of specific enzymes for each gene, the rate of change in the activities of enzymes is present when essential substances are available. In contrast, enzymes required for biosynthesis are generally catabolic enzymes that are stimulated, catabolic enzymes are inhibited when metabolic products are present in the pathway in which they function</p> Suhad Y Abed, Shahrazad Najem Abdu_Allah, Dr. Abdalkader Saeed Latif, Dr.Alia Essam Mahmood Alubad Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://scholarzest.com/index.php/esj/article/view/4307 Wed, 14 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 FACTORES COGNITIVOS QUE INFLUYEN EN LA ADQUISICIÓN DEL ESPAÑOL COMO SEGUNDA LENGUA https://scholarzest.com/index.php/esj/article/view/4309 <p>Este estudio examina los factores cognitivos que conducen al aprendizaje del español como segunda lengua y sus efectos. Estos factores incluyen métodos educativos generales, comunicación interpersonal y metodología de enseñanza, valores sociohistóricos y otras variables. Los resultados de esta investigación pueden cambiar el entorno externo e interno de la enseñanza, así como a través de la educación, las relaciones sociales y la espiritualidad de los estudiantes</p> Sabirova Nilufar Kamiljonovna Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://scholarzest.com/index.php/esj/article/view/4309 Wed, 14 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 PROVERBS AND SAYINGS WITH PHYTONYMS AND THEIR ANALYSIS IN COMPARIED LANGUAGES https://scholarzest.com/index.php/esj/article/view/4313 <p>The article analyzes proverbs and sayings with the concept of "plants" - phytonyms (names of trees, flowers, plants) in the compared languages. Their study contributes both to a better knowledge of the language and a better understanding of the mindset and character of the people. In the course of the analysis, all components - phytonyms, mentioned in proverbs in the compared languages, were conditionally divided into three subgroups according to plant species: 1) forests and trees; 2) plants, flowers, cereals; 3) fruits, berries, vegetables and examples are given, the equivalence and differences of their components are indicated, their semantic correlation is compared.</p> Abdullayeva Nilufar Ramazonovna , Nargiza Kholmurodova Panji qizi Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://scholarzest.com/index.php/esj/article/view/4313 Wed, 14 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 SOME COMMENTS ON SEMANTIC AND METAPHORICAL FEATURES OF COMPUTER AND INTERNET TERMS IN ENGLISH AND UZBEK LANGUAGES https://scholarzest.com/index.php/esj/article/view/4329 <p>As society and new communication technology advance, many unique ideas become widely recognized and become ingrained in ordinary discourse. For instance, it is acceptable to refer to computer technology concepts like item, antiviral, hyperlink, cyberspace, intranet, extranet, and other well-known phrases that are often used in daily speech. In this article, we discuss semantic and metaphorical features of computer and internet terms in English and Uzbek languages.</p> Lobar Usmanova Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://scholarzest.com/index.php/esj/article/view/4329 Wed, 21 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 FOOD TECHNOLOGY TERMS IN ENGLISH IDIOMS AND PROVERBS: FROM CONCEPTS TO ALTERNATIVES https://scholarzest.com/index.php/esj/article/view/4330 <p>There are many idioms proverbs in the English language. While some of them are easily understood and appear to be fairly comparable to ours, others are mind-boggling. The language used to create idioms and proverbs is typically the subject of linguistic investigation, which describes it both diachronically and synchronically and assesses its morphological features, lexical choices, prosodic elements, variations and modes of use, as well as local and regional variants. It focuses primarily on spoken idioms and proverbs as cultural and anthropological products of a community that, as they pass from one generation to the next, give voice to commonplace experiences, convey moral precepts, and make sardonic judgments in brief and usually humorous ways.</p> Mukaddam Alihonova Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://scholarzest.com/index.php/esj/article/view/4330 Tue, 20 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 PSYCHOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES OF THE FORMATION OF MORAL VALUES IN STUDENTS OF A SMALL SCHOOL AGE https://scholarzest.com/index.php/esj/article/view/4331 <p>This article explores the psychological processes involved in the formation of moral values in small school-aged students. Through a comprehensive literature analysis, various theories and frameworks are examined to understand the factors influencing moral development during this critical stage of childhood. The methods section outlines practical approaches for educators and parents to support the cultivation of moral values in young learners. Results highlight the importance of social interactions, role modeling, and educational interventions in shaping children's moral compass. The discussion delves into the implications of these findings for educational practices and offers recommendations for fostering positive moral development in small school-aged students. Conclusions underscore the significance of early intervention and collaborative efforts between educators, parents, and communities in nurturing morally responsible individuals</p> Abdullayeva Kimyo Adilovna Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://scholarzest.com/index.php/esj/article/view/4331 Tue, 20 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 AN EXAMINATION OF THE VARIABLES THAT AFFECT EMPLOYEES' INTENTIONS TO LEAVE IN PT ANUGRAH https://scholarzest.com/index.php/esj/article/view/4337 <p>This research aims to find out the impact of Job Satisfaction, Work Stress and Organizational Commitment on the Turnover Intention on PT Anugrah. This research is descriptive research using a quantitative approach. This study is a population study using the census method with the number of respondents as many as 40 employees. The results of the work satisfaction study (X1) and the Organizational Commitment (X2) have no influence on turnover intention (Y). These results show that the program - program given to employees can give job satisfaction and increase the commitment of the organization to stay in the institution of PT Anugrah. While the work stress (X3) has an influence upon the desire to move (Y) The results show the need for a program or concrete step - step from the management of PT anugrah to suppress or reduce work stress that occurs in employees.</p> Wico Jontarudi Tarigan, Djuli Sjafei Purba, Sri Martina Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://scholarzest.com/index.php/esj/article/view/4337 Thu, 22 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 INTEGRATING TECHNOLOGY IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING https://scholarzest.com/index.php/esj/article/view/4348 <p>Much has been written, published, and presented about the important role of integrating technology in English language teaching (ELT) and the effects on students’ learning and teaching. Because of the many benefits that technology offers for both teaching and learning, an increasing number of English language instructors are attempting to incorporate it into their lesson plans. This article discusses the reasons and benefits of why technology should be promoted for English language learning in- and outside the classroom</p> Hilola Nurmatova Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://scholarzest.com/index.php/esj/article/view/4348 Thu, 22 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000